Civil War and Reconstruction Guide

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Civil War and Reconstruction Study Guide
Harriet Beecher Stowe – An abolitionist who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, which was released in 1852. Angered by the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, she was inspired to write a book that revealed to America the horrors of slavery. Abraham Lincoln referred to her as "the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."
Staple Crops – Crops that are traditionally grown. Cotton was a strong staple in the South.
Edmund Ruffin – A Virginian farmer, slaveholder, and political activist who advocated state rights and the right to secession. He was a strong supporter of the Confederacy and fought in the Confederate army. He had noticed the violence between North and South, and correctly predicted a civil war – however, he incorrectly predicted a win for the South.
Planters – Farmers who owned their own plantations. These contributed to the majority of the slaveholding population. However, they were a small percentage of the total population in the South.
Yeoman Farmers – Small farmers who owned and worked their own land. Most of these farmers could not afford slaves, but supported the slave system because they feared competition from freed slaves. These farmers were suspicious of the government, and identified with Andrew Jackson.
William Ellison – A freed black slave who learned many trades, and eventually became the largest slaveholder in South Carolina. He was also a strong supporter of the Confederate cause.
Nat Turner – A black field-overseer who felt he had a divine mission to lead a slave rebellion. He and a few other slaves killed the family of their white master, and went off to other farms to do the same. As they traveled, other slaves joined them. Eventually, 55 whites were killed before the rebellion was put down by the local militia.
American Colonization Society – A group composed of both Northerners and Southerners that helped free blacks to move from America to a colony in Liberia. This lessened Southern fears of a free- black uprising, and Northern fears of a large influx of black workers.
Abolitionists – Advocates for the emancipation of slaves. Many American abolitionists were agitators and radicals such as William Lloyd Garrison, and both northerners and southerners frowned upon them for the strain they placed on the Union. Some extreme abolitionists like John Brown used violence to achieve their goals, which led to conflicts in Bleeding Kansas.
William Lloyd Garrison – A powerful abolitionist and editor of The Liberator, a radical anti-slavery newspaper. He also was one of the founding members of theAmerican Anti-Slavery Society. His radical views and calls for immediate emancipation made him very unpopular in the south.
Frederick Douglass – An escaped slave who became a prominent abolitionist in the north. He frequently gave speeches against slavery, and was credited with his skill as an orator. Besides fighting for abolition movements, he also supported feminist movements and various independence movements, including that of Ireland.
Underground Railroad – A network of secret routes set up by abolitionists that guided escaped slaves to freedom. "Conductors" like Harriet Tubman guided these slaves on their long journey north to Canada, where slavery was outlawed.
"Gag Rule" - The nickname for the Pinckney Resolution, and all other resolutions that followed that tabled the topic of slavery. Pro-slavery southerners didn't want the topic to actually be addressed in Congress, so they continued to hold it off until a later time as a means of compromise.
American Anti-Slavery Society – An abolitionist society that was founded by William Lloyd Garrison. They worked for the emancipation of slaves and the equality of freed blacks. Often, their anti-slavery protests were met with public violence. Frederick Douglass was a prominent member and frequent speaker at meetings.
Sojourner Truth – A northern slave who was freed when New York forced the emancipation of all resident slaves. She became highly religious, and an advocate for abolition and women's rights. She was good friends with Garrison and other abolitionists. Like Douglass, she was a skilled orator.
Thomas R. Dew – A Virginian plantation-owner and professor. He published a number of well- respected writings in support of slavery.
George Fitzhugh –social theorist who argued that "the Negro is but a grown up child" who needs the economic and social protections of slavery.
Wilmot Proviso – prevent the introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. The proviso did not pass in any session.
Popular Sovereignty – Allowed citizens in new states to decide whether or not to have slavery by a popular vote.
Free Soil Party – Existed only in the Presidential Elections of 1848 and 1852, and they were later absorbed into the Republican Party. They wanted to keep slavery out of new states to the West, but not abolish it in states that already had slavery.
“Conscience” Whigs – A faction of the Whig Party opposed to slavery. They were based in the North and were a minority. They helped create the Free Soil Party.
“Cotton” Whigs – They were the majority of the Whig Party. They were based in the South and approved of Slavery.
Compromise of 1850 – It was designed by Henry Clay. There were five laws which balanced the interests of the slave states of the South and the free states to the North. California was admitted as a free state; Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands west of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico; the Territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and a portion of southern Nevada) was organized without any specific prohibition of slavery; the slave trade (but not slavery itself) was terminated in the District of Columbia; and the stringent Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring all U.S. citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves regardless of the legality of slavery in the specific states.It also included the decision to allow the Kansas and Nebraska territories to decide the issue of slavery by popular soveriegnty.
“Concurrent Majority” – The idea that minority groups should get power to veto what they think is unfair or wrong. Calhoun used this argument when South Carolina threatened to secede during the Nullification Crisis.
Stephen A. Douglass – He won the Senate seat against Lincoln, but later lost the presidency to him. He created the Kansas-Nebraska Act which allowed Kansas and Nebraska to vote on slavery.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates – Lincoln and Douglass traveled Illinois for seven debates to determine who should win the Senate seat. Although Lincoln lost he gained much respect for his anti-slavery views, and he later used this to help him win the presidency.
Fire Eaters – Southern politicians who were pro-slavery and believed in secession from the Union.
Crittenden Compromise – An attempt to stop secession that drew a line through the U.S. and said that slavery was abolished above it and allowed below it. Congress was not allowed to revise this decision. The Fugitive Slave Act was given stricter enforcement. The compromise was denied.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 – All runaway slaves had to be returned to their master even if they made it to the North. Anyone found hiding slaves faced severe punishment. This angered the North greatly.
Underground Railroad – A secret route that allowed escaped slaves to flee to Canada. It was maintained by abolitionists. Harriet Tubman became famous because of it.
Nature of the Union – The Union was in a bad state. They were breaking apart.
Young America – It advocated free trade, social reform, expansion southward into the territories, and support for republican movements abroad. It became a faction in the Democratic Party in the 1850s. Sen. Stephen A. Douglas promoted its nationalistic program in an unsuccessful effort to compromise sectional differences.
Ostend Manifesto – A secret document that contained a plan for the U.S. to purchase Cuba from Spain. The North did not like it because they thought that slavery would be introduced in Cuba.
Gadsen Purchase – A region that is now the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico. It was purchased from Mexico in 1854. The reason for its purchase was to construct a railroad.
Dorothea Dix- former school teacher from MA, traveled across the country in the 1840s and reported about awful treatment for mentally ill. As a result, mental patients began getting state funded professional help.

Clara Barton- nurse during the civil war who worked in makeshift field hospitals that were very close to actual fighting

greenbacks- paper money not backed by specie (gold or silver)
-greenback party formed because of issue of whether or not paper money should be in circulation

Copperheads- extreme section of the Peace Wing that wanted an end to the war; openly spoke out against Lincoln (led to suspension of habeas corpus for "disloyal" persons

Clement L. Vallandigham- confederate sympathizer in Ohio who was sentanced to imprisonment for the duration of the war. Escaped to Canada and ran as democrat for Ohio goernor in 1863. Returned to US in 1864 and was left alone at Lincoln's order. (proved embarassmet for Democratic party)

Battle of Vicksburg- Union bombarded Vicksburg (major town on the Mississippi River). Confederate surrender on July 4, 1863 gave Union complete control of the Mississipp i and cut of Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the rest of the Confederacy.

Battle of Gettysburg- July 1, 1863 southern army surprised Union at Gettysburg, PA; was the most crucial and bloodiest battle of the war (>50,000 casualties). Confederate attack was futile and damaged good part of army. South never regained the offensive.

Robert E. Lee- Confederate general

William T. Sherman- Union general who led 100,000 men from Chattanooga, Tenn. through Georgia then north to Columbia, SC, destroying everything in his path and breaking the Confederates will to fight. (1864)

Battle of Antietam- Sept. 1862- Confederates marched across Potomac after victory at Bull Run; meant to surprise Union, but Union general McClellan got a copy of Lee's battle plan. 2 armies met at Sharpsburg, MD and had single bloodiest day of war (>22,000 killed or wounded). Confederates retreated and Union failed to follow (move which later got McClellan fired as Union commander).

Battle of Chattanooga- Sept. 19-20, 1863 Union underdog victory that established Grant as general of Union army

Appomatox Court House- place where Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9, 1865

Freedmen's Bureau- agency created by Congress in March 1865; provided food, shelter, and medical aid ro those made destitute by the war (both blacks and homeless whites), helped to establish nearly 3,000 schools for freed blacks.

"forty acres and a mule"- falsely rumored land grant for freed slaves (became slogan in South at the end of the war)

Wade-Davis Bill- 1864 bill that required 50% of voters of a state to take a loyalty oath and permitted only non-Confederates to vote for a new state constitution (passed by Congress, vetoed by Lincoln)
sharecropping- type of farm tenancy in which landless workers (often former slaves) farmed land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop; differed from tenancy in that the terms were generally less favorable

"Iron clad oath" – Designed to keep anti-slavery Republicans in control of the state government, a part of the 1865 Constitution of Missouri that required that every teacher, voter, officeholder, attorney, clergyman, or juror take an oath that he had never, directly or indirectly, committed any of a long list of disloyal acts. The U.S. Supreme Court found the oath unconstitutional in 1867, but it remained a qualification for suffrage until 1870.
Black codes – Codes passed by the new southern state legislatures that restricted the freedom of blacks. Details varied from state to state. Existing marriages were recognized (although interracial marriages were prohibited), blacks could own property, sue, and be sued. In some states, they couldn't own farm lands or city lots, or practice certain trades without license. They were required to enter into annual labor contracts, unemployed blacks were subject to fine and forced into labor if they could not pay, etc. Way to keep slavery without slavery.
Radicals – Radical Republican control of the South: constructed an extensive railroad network and established state school systems. State governments under the Radicals gave more attention to poor relief and to orphanages, asylums, and institutions for the deaf and blind of both races. Public roads, bridges, and buildings were repaired and rebuilt. Blacks achieved equality before the law and the rights to own property, carry on business, enter professions, attend schools, and learn to read and write. There was also corruptions in the Radical governments.
Fourteenth Amendment – Passed Congress in 1866 and was ratified by the states in 1868, amendment reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for persons born or naturalized in the US, forbade any state to abridge the "privileges and immunities" of citizens, to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without "due process of law," or to deny any person "the equal protection of the laws."
Military reconstruction – new conditions under which the formation of southern state governments should begin all over again. "No legal state governments or adequate protection for life and property now exists in the rebel States…" Tennessee, which had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment was exempted from the application of this act.
Command of the Army Act – required that all orders from the commander-in-chief go through the headquarters of the general of the army.
Tenure of Office Act – required the consent of the Senate for the president to remove any officeholder whose appointment the Senate had to confirm in the first place. It also said that Cabinet officers should serve during the term of the president who appointed them.
Ex parte McCardle – In 1867, army officials responsible for administering Reconstruction in Mississippi arrested William McCardle, a Vicksburg editor, for publishing libelous editorials that incited insurrection. Using the Reconstruction Act of 1867, they tried McCardle by military commission. McCardle protested due to the Habeas Corpus Act of 1867, which directed federal courts to issue habeas corpus writs in cases involving people confined in violation of their constitutional rights. The Supreme Court bowed to Congress and dismissed the case for want of jurisdiction, without passing judgment on the constitutionality of the Reconstruction Act.
Carpetbaggers and Scalawags – White Republicans in the South. Carpetbaggers were northern opportunists who supposedly rushed south with all of their belongings in "carpetbags" to grab political spoils, but were actually Union veterans who had been drawn South by hope of economic opportunity and other attractions they had seen as soldiers. Scalawags were the native white Republicans, who had opposed succession. Also former Whigs attracted to Republican economic programs of industrial and commercial expansion.
Tweed ring – A notorious ring controlling New York City politics. Samuel Tilden's directed a campaign to overthrow both the Tweed ring and the Canal Ring in Albany, which had bilked the state of millions.
Ku Klux Klan – Organized in 1866 by young men in Pulaski, Tennessee as a social club with costumes, secret ritual, and mumbo-jumbo common to fraternal groups. Turned to intimidation of blacks and white Republicans. Had imitators like Louisiana's Knights of the White Camellia, which also spread rapidly across the South. Klansmen rode around under masks and robes, spread rumors, issued threats, harassed African Americans, and wreaked violence. Killed/lynched both whites and blacks.
"Ohio idea" – the democratic idea to use greenbacks to repay government bonds, rather than coins, following the idea that since the bonds had been bought using greenbacks, they should be repaid using greenbacks. Would cause inflation, but was very popular with farmers and manufacturers who depended on easy credit.
Liberal Republicans – favored free trade, gold to redeem greenbacks, a stable currency, ending federal Reconstruction efforts in the South. restoring the rights of former Confederates, and civil service reform. Held a national convention in 182 that condemned the Republicans' Reconstruction policy and favored civil service reform.
Jay Gould – A man who, along with Jim Fisk, connived with president Grant's brother-in-law to corner the nation's gold market. Wanted to create a public craze for gold by purchasing massive quantities of it and convincing traders and the general public that the price would keep climbing, so that more people would buy in and the value of gold would soar. The scheme would not work if the federal Treasury sold large amounts of gold. Grant knew what was happening, but was seen in public with the schemers. He sold large amounts of gold from the Treasury. Gould began to quietly sell out before the bubble burst.
Crédit-Mobilier – another scandal of Grant's Administration; Crédit-Mobilier was a construction company composed of the directors of the Union Pacific Railroad that had milked the Union Pacific for exorbitant fees in order to line the pockets of the insiders who controlled both firms, leaving Union Pacific shareholders to pay. The schemers bought political support by giving congressmen stock in the enterprise. Happened before Grant's election, but touched a number of prominent Republicans.
Samuel J. Tilden – Democratic convention nominee for the Election of 1876. Tilden was a millionaire corporation lawyer and reform governor of New York who wanted to overthrow the Tweed Ring and Canal Ring (see above). Like his opponent, Rutherford B. Hayes, Tilden favored the trend toward white conservative rule in the South and civil service reform. The campaign tactics tended towards personal bashing, as there were no burning issues that the candidates disagreed on. Early in the election, Tilden was favored to win, however, there was no clear victory. A Republican promise that Hayes would withdraw troops from Louisiana and South Carolina and allow the Republican governments to collapse led Democrats to withdraw support from Tilden.
Compromise of 1877 - An informal compromise which said that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes would be recognized as President and in return all remaining federal troops would be removed from confederate states (specifically Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana).

Apologists view of slavery - That it wasn't religiously wrong because the Bible mentions it in several places. They manipulated the Bible's words to make it serve their purpose. They said that some northern white immigrants had it worse than slaves, but ignored a lot of factors.

Homestead Act - 1862 law which allowed anyone who had never taken up arms against the union, including free slaves, to apply for a large grant of land in the western unsettled territories under the condition that they would improve the land. Important because eventually 10% of the continental United States was made up of homestead land.

Morrill Land Grant Act - 1862 statutes that allowed for the creation of colleges in states that would teach military tactics, agriculture, and engineering. Land was given to each state based on representation in congress and the land or the profits from it were to be used for the advancement of college education. After the war it was extended to all the states.

Nashville Convention - 1850 political meeting between members of proslavery states. They discussed what to do if congress banned slavery in the new states being added. Paved the way for the Compromise of 1850 and avoided the civil war for some time.
Compact Theory - A theory lead by John C. Calhoun: The constitution was a compact between the individual states forming the federal government, and therefore the states should have the final power to decide if federal laws / actions were constitutional.

Prigg v. Pennsylvania - 1842 Supreme court case which held that federal law was supreme to state law.

William Seward - Outspoken Republican and secretary of state under Lincoln and Johnson. He survived an attempt on his life the day that Lincoln was killed. He purchased Alaska from Russia, against popular opinion.

Civil Rights Act of 1866 - Gave rights to freed slaves after the end of the civil war. Most important congressional act towards protecting freedmen's rights during reconstruction. Was a counter to the black codes (which had been southern state counters to the 13th amendment). Gave all races the right to sue, contract, bear witness and own property. Pres. Johnson vetoed the bill because he said it gave too many rights to blacks and was unfavorable to whites. Republicans in congress overrode the veto. Even though it was illegal to discriminate now, there were no federal solutions and remedies were left to the individuals involved. The blacks had little access to legal help at the time, so this bill was not very effective in stopping discrimination.

Neal Dow - Strict mayor in Maine. Considered the "father of prohibition." He sponsored the passage of prohibition in Maine. Was a union colonel in the civil war who got captured by the confederates. Ran for president under the prohibition party in 1880 (Garfield won).

Scalawags - Southern whites who supported reconstruction. They formed a coalition with freedmen and northerners who came south. The coalition held control of every ex-confederate state government (except for Virginia) from 1866-1877.

Tenure of Office Act - Passed over Johnson's veto. President could not remove anyone from office that was appointed by him and the Senate, unless if the Senate also agreed.

Radical Reconstruction - Period from 1866-1873 where Reconstruction made a lot of progress. Republicans held complete control of congress. They passed legislation to extend rights to freedmen. Opposed by the South and Pres. Johnson but the democrats had little power. The period was led by radical republicans.

Women's Christian Temperance Union - Started in 1873. Led a strong movement for prohibition of alcohol. Oldest continuing women's organization worldwide.

Thomas Nast - Cartoonist, considered the father of the American cartoon. His cartoons led to the downfall of New York politician Boss Tweed. His cartoons help recruit soldiers for the Union for the civil war. He opposed Andrew Johnson's policies.


A: Analyze the effectiveness of political compromise in reducing sectional tensions in the period from 1820 to 1861.

Dated Stuff
1820 – Missouri Compromise; Slavery prohibited above 36-30 and allowed below. Proposed by Henry Clay
1828-33 – Nullification Crisis; Did states have the right to deem certain congressional laws as unconstitutional and defy or leave the Union? Webster-Hayne Debate; Calhoun supported and Jackson was against it. Tariff was lowered upon compromise. However, Congress soon enacted a new tariff.
1830's – The Congress decided to keep all debates on slavery on hold/pushed under the carpet, since there was too much tension.
1837 – Panic of 1837; Banks became bankrupt; Democrats blamed Whigs.
1846 – Wilmot Proviso – New territories from Mexico would prohibit slavery; passed twice in House but failed in Senate. Increased tensions.
1848 – Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: Rio Grande was Southern border of Texas; United States would pay $15 million to Mexico. New territories from Mexico sparked national tensions about whether the new territories should harbor slavery.
1850 – Compromise by 1850; Proposed by Henry Clay; California is free; remaining states had to vote on slavery by popular sovereignty; ban slave trade in D.C.; Stricter Fugitive Slave Law.
1854 – Compromise of 1854 (Kansas-Nebraska Act); Proposed by Stephen Douglas; wanted to build a trans-continental railroad; needed southern votes to get accepted; to pacify south, Douglas proposed to go against the Missouri Compromise. An essay by a student from Thomas Jefferson High School in 2008 proved that Twain was referring to this compromise in "Cannibalism in the Cars" - lawlz
1854 – Birth of Republican Party in direct opposition to Kansas-Nebraska Act; became a northern party which was highly sectional; proposed to keep slavery confined to old slave states.
1856 – Bleeding Kansas – Border ruffians voted to keep slavery in Kansas so that popular sovereignty would yield to slavery.
1856 – Caning of Senator Sumner by Preston Brooks
1857 – Panic of 1857; Northern economy plummeted whereas southern economy did not. Gave the southerners the feeling that their economy was superior and that they could function independent of the North.
1859 – John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry.
1860 – Election of Lincoln led to the secession of the deep South.
1860 – Crittenden Compromise – Senator Crittenden of Kentucky wished to appease South by extending slavery to all territories below 36-30. Was heavily defeated in the North.

In the outline of the essay, I will only be mentioning names. Please see the above notes if you don't know what I mean in the outline.
Thesis – In the period from 1820 to 1861, sectionalism was so polarized in its view of political processes, slavery and its expansion, that even political compromise could not effectively reduce sectional tensions for an extended period of time.

Body 1: Expansion of slavery in New Territories
Missouri Compromise only kept the Union together for a while, though tensions were still high
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gave the Union many new territories.
Wilmot Proviso wished to prohibit slavery in all these territories
Compromise of 1850 happened.
Webster supported it to preserve Union but made northern supporters angry
Calhoun was against it, saying that South should have more rights. = sectionalism
Death of Taylor and succession of Fillmore passed the Compromise and bought time for the Union.
However, tensions were still high
Kansas-Nebraska Act – Republican Party – Bleeding Kansas = more tensions
Crittenden Compromise – was a last ditch effort to prevent south from seceding.

Body 2: laws/political processes
Popular sovereignty – bleeding Kansas, border ruffians
Nullification – though the south was initially appeased, it felt that the north was out to get it and used nullification as a means of secession
Fugitive slave law – made stricter in the compromise of 1850 angering the North


D) Assess the moral arguments and political actions of those opposed to the spread of slavery in the context of two of the following: Missouri Compromise; Mexican War; Compromise of 1850; Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Mexican War
• David Wilmot: Wilmot Proviso: In lands acquired from Mexico, "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory."
o Reasoning: Wanted territorial expansion, even if it meant annexing Texas as a slave state. BUT since slavery had already come to an end in Mexico, there was no reason to introduce slavery to the new territories.
o Wilmot Proviso never law. Twice the House approved, but the Senate refused.
o Arid climate excluded plantations so therefore excludes slavery.

Compromise of 1850
• Goal: to keep the country united. Final great debate between Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Daniel Webster
o Admit California to the union as a free state
o Divide the remainder of the Mexican Cession into two territories
o Give land in dispute between Texas and New Mexico territory to the new territories in return for fed. Gov. paying Texas' dept of $10 million.
o Ban slave trade in District of Columbia but permit whites to hold slaves as before
o Fugitive Slave law: Escaped slaves in north could be brought back
• Webster: argued for Compromise to save the Union, lost support of Massachusetts abolitionists
• Calhoun: argued that South be given equal rights in the acquired territory
• Clay: fashioned the compromise, as usual.
• Senator William H. Seward of NY: (opponent of compromise and against slavery) argued that there was higher law than Constitution—slavery was "radically wrong and essentially vicious." There was "a higher law than the Constitution" that demanded slavery be abolished.

Missouri Compromise and the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
• Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois- plan for railroad building and western settlement, but he need Southern support. So, he introduced a bill, proposing that the Nebraska Territory be divided into Kansas and Nebraska, and that the settlers there could decide if they wanted slaves or not
o Territory was north of the Missouri Compromise line 36°30', so this violated the Missouri Compromise and gave pro-slavery people a chance to bring slavery into the new territory.
o Douglas then wished to repeal the Missouri Compromise
o In opposition to this, 6 anti-slavery Congressmen published "Appeal of the Independent Democrats," calling the bill a "gross violation of a sacred pledge" and a plot to create another region of for slavery.
o Caused widespread opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act in the north
o The radical republican opinion was becoming the common view of northern people
o It passed b/c President Pierce supported it
o SO b/c Missouri Compromise was not sacred pledge, then the North reasoned neither was the Fugitive Slave Act
 Fugitive slave Anthony Burns in Boston— President Pierce brought force of soldiers and marines and marched Burns to a ship to be sent back to the South. New Englanders up-roared, calling Pierce the "chief slave-catcher of the United States."

Essay E: Analyze the economic consequences of the Civil War with respect to any TWO of the following in the United States between 1864 and 1880: Agriculture; Labor; Industrialization; Transportation.

o Civil War: very expensive
o Greatly impacts the economy because it is expensive to pay for soldiers, guns, food, medical supplies, transportation, etc.
o Government usually has a great amount of debt after war
o Needs of armies are different from basic economic needs of peaceful society so industries change during war to meet these needs
o After war, industries shift their production and services back to peace-time products

o Antebellum South thrived on slave labor while the North focused on business, banking, factories, government, etc.
o The South produced the raw materials for textile goods (cotton especially), and the North turned these into products that could be sold within the nation as well as internationally.
o Abolition had huge implications on Southern economics because now all African Americans were a part of the labor market as opposed to being free labor that slave owners were only required to keep in minimal even squalid conditions.
o By discouraging immigration, the war reduced a source of cheap labor
o Labor was very different after Civil War because slavery was outlawed by the Thirteenth amendment in 1865: new class of workers = free persons of color
o Sharecropping: South’s compulsory labor force was gone
o At first, white landowners attempted to force freed blacks into signing contracts to work the fields  these contracts set terms that nearly bound the signer to permanent and unrestricted labor (slavery by a different name)
o However, Blacks insisted on autonomy so whites adopted a system based on tenancy and sharecropping
o Under sharecropping, the landlord provided the seed and other needed farm supplies in return for a share (usually 50%) of the harvest.
 System gave poor people of the rural south (whites and blacks) the opportunity to work a piece of land for themselves, sharecroppers usually remained either dependent on the landowners or in debt to local merchants
o By 1880, no more than 5% of southern blacks had managed to achieve their dreams of becoming independent landowners
o Sharecropping became new form of servitude

o In the South, the cotton market decreased because of the northern blockade. Southerners were forced to change from commercial agriculture based in cotton and tobacco to diversify farmed based in food crops.
o In the North, particularly in Ohio, the wool, which was always in demand in wartime to make uniforms and blankets, was important during the Civil War because southern cotton was not available.
o A lot of the corn grew in Ohio before the Civil War was marketed in the south, but when the South market was cut off, the corn production temporarily declined until trade channels were opened with the East side.
o The Civil War increased the production of sorghum and wool in Iowa, but corn continued to be principal source of wealth. Also, the production of the great staples and crops offered as substitutes for southern staples were increased.
o The major changes from hand methods to animal power were taking place as a result of wartime.
o In conclusion, the Civil War stimulated farm production, the development of commercial agriculture, and the farm mechanization.

o War changed the U.S. from a country with an essentially agrarian society to one dependent on mechanization and a national market system.
o In 1860, the country possessed some 128,300 industrial establishments. Of these, 110,274 were located in states that remained in the Union.
o While the loss of the Southern crop produced a steep war-long decline in production in the North's largest industry, cotton textiles, its woolen industry enjoyed a 100% production rise during the conflict.
o The second largest consumer industry in the Union, shoes and leather, also enjoyed tremendous growth, thanks to army contracts
o Other war related industries, especially firearms, gunpowder, and wagon manufacturing, grew rapidly on the strength of military contracts.
o Iron production in the North experienced a slump early in the war but boomed in 1864, reaching a production level 29% higher than that of the entire country in the busiest prewar year, 1856.
o 1861-65, coal industry enjoyed an expansion rate 21% higher than that for the nation as a whole during the 4 years immediately preceding civil strife.
o The war years stimulated production of new inventions and accelerated the growth of established technology. Due to a deluge of government contracts, sewing machines became an integral part of the clothing industry, and the 50-year-old system of machine-made interchangeable parts became firmly entrenched in the production system.

F. How do you account for the failure of Reconstruction (1865-1877) to bring social equality of opportunity to the former slaves?

o Southern Intransigence

1. Southern whites had accepted the situation because they thought little had changed
2. Johnson’s lenience and “counsels of expediency” were ignored, and state conventions hardly mentioned them
3. 1865- Southern white legislature positions remained in the hands of ex-Confederate officers, and were refused seats in Congress
4. Resented new constitutions w/ Black suffrage/civil rights
5. Republican officials could be corrupt and bids for contracts for ridiculous prices were accepted; public $/credit voted to private corporations (railroads) -> influence peddling
6. Ku Klux Klan (est. 1866)
 Upper South- mild Democratic facilitation
 Deep South- Republicans quite campaigning/voting
 Wore out the North’s interest in the South’s problem

o Northern Apathy
1. Western expansion
2. Indian wars
3. new economic opportunities
4. political controversy over tariff and currency
5. Business panic of 1873/depression
 new racial tensions; Rep. control in South loosened as “Conservatives” (Democrats) took over

o Legislative
1. Congress set up the Joint Committee on Reconstruction  gather evidence that South was thwarting Reconstruction  needed black votes to stay in control of Senate
2. Partisanship (exclude Democratic South and maintain power)
 said they were promoting the black vote to promote black welfare
3. “forfeited-rights theory” –the Southern states continued to exist as entities, but by seceding and causing war had caused them to forfeit “all civil and political rights under the Constitution”  Congress had to determine how to restore their rights
4. Civil Rights Act (1866)- Congress passes this in response to Black Codes- “full and equal benefit of all laws”  Joint Committee recommended a new constitutional amendment  ratified in 1868 by all staes (14th Amendment)
5. Race riots in Memphis and New Orleans (summer 1866) fueled the Reconstruction debates  indiscriminate black massacres
6. The Command of the Army Act (1867)– pres. orders  general of army  Radical Republican (Grant)
7. Tenure of Office Act (1867)- Senate consent for pres. to remove an officeholder (retain Rep. Radical sympathizer Edwin Stanton of Johnson’s cabinet)  word ambiguity; term of pres. who appointed him, Johnson was carrying out Lincoln’s term
8. Military Reconstruction Act (1867)- victory of “Radical” Reconstruction; 10 rebel states (not TN) divided into 5 military districts; commanding officer protected rights (may use military tribunals)  male suffrage as new constitutions were created
9. Ratification of 14th Amendment was a requirement to become a state
10. Second Reconstruction Act (1867)- army commanders register all males swearing qualification
11. Congress removes Supreme Courts jurisdiction in regards to the Military Reconstruction Act
12. Rep. political control collapsed in VA/TN: 1869; GA/NC: 1870 (NC had Rep. governor until 1876); by 1876 Radical Rep. only in LA, SC, and FL; collapsed after elections that year

o Black Codes

1. “Equal”
 Existing marriages (including common-law ones) were recognized
 Testimony of black were accepted in legal cases involving blacks
 Could own property
 Sue and be sued in court

2. Unequal
 Interracial marriages = prohibited
 Testimony of black were accepted in legal cases involving blacks
 Could not own farmland in MS / city lots in SC
 Could not carry firearms without a license in some states
 Annual labor contracts
 Dependent children” compulsory apprenticeship/corporal punishment by masters
 Unemployed (vagrant) blacks were severely fined; f/ since they couldn’t pay forced to work in fields for those paying the courts for this source of cheap labor (“[Slavery] by any other name…”)
 MS penal code decreed its conservative black-bashing motives
“All penal and criminal laws now in force describing the mode of punishment of all crimes and misdemeanors committed by slaves, free negroes, or mulattoes are hereby reenacted, and decreed to be in full force.”

o Freedman’s Bureau (est. 1865) – were supposed to provide for land, education, jobs, security, houses, etc.

1. Education: 600, 000 blacks were in southern school by 1877
2. Right to vote with 13th Amendment
 (Mrs. Brown said this, though I don’t know that the Bureau directly appealed to anyone for ratification. The Amendment’s ratification was encouraged by Lincoln and Johnson.)
3. Supervised other trials and had its own court for land disputes
4. By 1870, huge majority of former slaves lived with two parents

1. Couldn’t give land/take food (accomplish “40 acres and a meal,” as Southern propaganda suggested)
2. White intransigence ( Black Codes) & failure to grasp the intensity of racial prejudice thwarted efforts to protect and assist former slaves
3. Johnson shuts down the Bureau in 1872

o Sharecropping
1. White landowners tried forcing freed blacks to sign contracts to work  pseudo-slavery
2. Emancipated blacks recognized this, so a sharecropping and tenancy system was put into motion
3. Sharecropping: White landlord provided seed and farm supplies
 Received a share, which was often half of the harvest.



Chapter 13
I. Introduction
a. Main causes for war:
1. Slavery
2. Constitutional disputes over the nature of the federal Union and states’ rights
3. Economic differences between the industrializing North and the agricultural South
4. Political blunders and extremism on both sides.
II. Conflict Over Status of Territories
a. Intro
1. Wilmot Proviso – excluded slavery from the new territories, but would have upset the compromise of 1820
2. Supported by northern Democrats and Whigs.
b. Free Soil Movement
1. However, antislavery people and racists supported the Free Soil Movement.
2. Free Soilers didn’t demand the end of slavery – they sought keep the West a land of opportunity for whites only.
c. Southern Position
1. Southern whites viewed any attempt to restrict the expansion of slavery as a violation of their constitutional right to take and use their property as they wished.
d. Popular Sovereignty (a.k.a. “squatter”)
1. A solution proposed by Lewis Cass (Democrat from Michigan) in which the issue of slavery was decided by a vote of the people who settled the territory.
e. The Election of 1848
1. Candidate nominees from each party:
i. Democrats: Lewis Cass – platform of popular sovereignty
ii. Whigs: General Zachary Taylor – Mexican war hero; never been involved in politics; took no position on slavery in the territories
iii. Free-Soil Party: Former president Martin Van Buren – opposed slavery
2. Taylor narrowly defeats Cass
III. Compromise of 1850
a. President Taylor’s plan to admit California and New Mexico as free states sparked talk of secession among the “fire-eaters” (radicals) of the South. Some southern extremists met in Nashville in 1850 to discuss secession.
b. However, Henry Clay proposed another compromise for solving the political crisis. The compromise proposed to:
1. Admit California to the Union as a free state.
2. Divide the remainder of the Mexican Cession into two territories and allow the settlers in these territories to decide the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty.
3. Give the land in dispute between Texas and the New Mexico territory to the new territories in return for the federal government assuming Texas’ public debt of $10 million.
4. Ban the slave trade in D.C. (whites could still hold slaves, however)
5. Adopt and enforce a new stricter Fugitive Slave Law.
c. Daniel Webster argued for the compromise while John C. Calhoun argued against it.
d. Taylor opposed Clay’s plan until his sudden death in 1850. Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeded him; Fillmore was a strong supporter of compromise.
e. Stephen A. Douglas (Illinois) divided up the bill and managed to pass each part of the bill separately, and President Fillmore signed the bills into law.
f. The compromise delayed the conflicts a short time, but many aspects of the compromise led to even more conflict between the north and the south.
IV. Agitation Over Slavery
a. Fugitive Slave Law
1. Law’s purpose was to track down fugitive slaves and return them to the south.
2. The law led to increased agitation for both the North and the South: antislavery northerners detested the harsh law, while southerners thought it needed to be rigorously enforced.
3. A captured person who claimed to be a free black and not a runaway slave was denied the right of trial by jury. Citizens who attempted to hide a runaway were subject to heavy penalties.
b. Underground Railroad
1. Loosely organized system which helped escaped slaves reach freedom in the North or in Canada.
2. Harriet Tubman made at least 19 trips into the South to help some 300 slaves escape.
3. Once civil war broke out, black leaders such as Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth continued to take an active role in fighting for emancipation.
c. Literature on Slavery – Pro and Con
1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
i. Written by northern writer Harriet Beecher Stowe, published in 1852.
ii. About the conflict between a slave named Tom and the brutal white slave owner Simon Legree.
iii. Caused many northerners to regard slave owners as monstrously cruel and inhuman. Caused southerners, who thought the North was prejudiced, to detest the North even more.
2. Impending Crisis of the South
i. Nonfiction book written by Hinton R. Helper.
ii. Used statistics to demonstrate to fellow southerners that slavery had a negative impact on the South’s economy.
3. Southern reaction
i. Southerners responded by arguing that slavery was sanctioned by the Bible, and that the slavery system was much better than the northern “wage slaves” who were force do work long hours in factories.
ii. George Fitzhugh attacked the capitalist wage system with his works Sociology for the South (1854) and Cannibals All! (1857)
d. Effects of Fugitive Slave Law and Literature
1. Caused for an even more polarized nation.
2. Northerners who had earlier scorned the abolitionist cause now became concerned about the moral issues posed by slavery.
3. Southerners increasingly thought the North was trying to ruin slavery and their way of life.
V. National Parties in Crisis
a. Intro
1. In the mid 1850s, the Democrats and Whigs weakened, and a disastrous application of popular sovereignty in Kansas occurred.
b. The Election of 1852
1. Candidate nominees from each party:
i. Whigs: General Winfield Scott – ignored the slavery issue and concentrated on the party’s innocuous plans for improving roads and harbors.
ii. Democrats: Franklin Pierce – acceptable to southern democrats because of his support of the Fugitive Slave Law.
2. Pierce and Democrats win; begins the demise of the Whig party.
c. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
1. Douglas gained Southern approval of a railroad bill from him by introducing a bill which proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska Territory, and that popular sovereignty be used in these new territories.
2. These territories were located north of the 36°30’ line which was set by the Missouri compromise, so it would give the South an opportunity it didn’t previously have; therefore, many Southerners liked it.
3. The bill passed in 1854 and was signed into law by President Pierce.
4. The act renewed the sectional controversy that had been partially solved by the compromise of 1850. Because it repealed the Compromise of 1820 in effect, Northern Democrats condemned the law.
5. The Republican party emerged in the aftermath, its purpose being to express opposition to the spread of slavery in the territories.
d. New Parties
1. Know-Nothing party
i. Formal name was the American party
ii. Sole burning issue was opposition to Catholics and immigrants who, in the 1840s and 1850s, were entering northern cities in large numbers.
iii. Drew support from the Whigs, who were still recovering from their 1852 election defeat.
iv. Party quickly lost influence as sectional issues again became paramount.
2. Birth of the Republican Party
i. Republican Party founded in Wisconsin in 1854 as a direct reaction to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
ii. Made up of Free-Soilers and antislavery Whigs and Democrats.
iii. Made up of northern and western moderates who were opposed to slavery in the newly-acquired territories (didn’t mind if slavery continued in old slave states of the South).
iv. Grew rapidly from 1854 to 1860
v. Viewed as threat by South due to its northern and sectional views.
e. The Election of 1856
1. Candidate nominees from each party:
i. Republicans: John C. Frémont (California) – called for no expansion of slavery, free homesteads, and a pro-business protective tariff.
ii. Know-Nothings: Former president Millard Fillmore – won 20% of popular vote
iii. Democrats: James Buchannan (Pennsylvania)
2. Democrats won as expected, but the Republicans made a remarkably strong showing. Frémont carried 11/16 of the free states.
3. It became evident that antislavery Republicans could win the White House without a single vote from the South.
VI. Extremists and Violence
a. “Bleeding Kansas”
1. Kansas became a bloody, tragic place due to Kansas-Nebraska act.
2. Antislavery farmers from the Midwest made up most of the Kansas population, but slaveholders from Missouri came in to try to take control (they were named “border ruffians”.
3. New England Emigrant Aid Company (1855) founded. It paid for the trapnsortation of antislavery settlers to Kansas.
4. Fighting broke out between proslavery and antislavery groups, leading to the name “Bleeding Kansas”.
5. Proslavery legislature was created in Lecompton, Kansas, while an antislavery legislature was created in Topeka.
6. After proslavery forces attacked the free-soil town of Lawrence, John Brown, a stern abolitionist from Connecticut, led his sons on an attack of proslavery farm settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The Browns brutally killed five settlers.
7. President Pierce did nothing in response to bleeding Kansas.
b. Caning of Senator Sumner
1. In 1856, Senator Charles Sumner verbally attacked South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler.
2. Preston Brooks, Butler’s nephew, beat Sumner over the head with a cane for his remarks.
3. This caused outrage in the North, but only served to further rally up the South.
VII. Constitutional Issues
a. Lecompton Constitution
1. Buchannan asks congress to accept Lecompton constitution, which enforced slavery, but did not have support of the majority of settlers.
2. Congress rejects constitution. Document is overwhelmingly defeated the next year by the majority of Kansas settlers.
b. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
1. Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri, until he was taken to the free territory of Wisconsin where he lived for two years before returning to Missouri.
2. The court, headed by Chief Justice Roger Taney (a southern democrat), decided against Scott.
3. Declared law of 1820 (Missouri Compromise) unconstitutional, and allowed for slavery in all states.
4. Made North suspicious of South; increased sectional tensions.
c. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1. In 1858, series of debates were held between the two contenders for the Illinois senate seat, Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln.
2. Lincoln was a moderate, but he did not support the expansion of slavery into the new territories.
3. Although Douglas won the senate campaign, he lost ground in his own party (Democratic) by alienating southern Democrats.
4. Lincoln, however, emerged as a new public figure.
VIII. The Road to Secession
a. Intro
1. Republicans did well in congressional elections of 1858, which alarmed Southerners because of Republicans’ antislavery views and North-favoring economic program (program called for higher tariffs, which would help northern business and hurt the South’s cotton trade).
2. South became increasingly afraid of the North; thought the North would destroy the South if they won in 1860.
b. John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry
1. In October 1859, John Brown led a small band of followers in an attack on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, in attempt to arm Virginia’s slaves in a revolt.
2. Brown was captured by federal troops after a two-day siege. He and six followers were hanged.
3. The South became convinced that the North wanted to destroy the South via slave revolts after John Brown’s raid.
c. The Election of 1860
1. After holding two conventions, the Democratic Party split up.
2. After the South warned that if Lincoln (Republican) was elected president, they would succeed, the Constitutional Union Party was formed, with the sole purpose of preserving the union.
3. Candidate nominees from each party:
i. Northern Democrats: Stephen A. Douglas – popular sovereignty and enforcement of the fugitive slave law.
ii. Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge – unrestricted extension of slavery in the territories and the annexation of Cuba as another slave land.
iii. Republicans: Abraham Lincoln – Platform appealed strongly to the economic self-interest of northerners and westerners. Also called for the exclusion of slavery from the territories.
iv. Constitutional Union Party: John Bell – Pledged enforcement of the laws and the Constitution and, above all, preserving the Union.
4. Lincoln wins every Free State of the North, with 59 percent of the electoral vote.
d. Secession of the Deep South
1. Even though the Republicans controlled neither the Congress nor the Supreme Court, southern secessionists called for immediate disunion.
2. In December 1860 a special convention in South Carolina voted unanimously to secede.
3. Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas secede.
4. In February 1861, representatives of the seven states of the Deep South met in Montgomery, Alabama to create the Confederate States of America.
5. Confederate constitution was similar to U.S. constituting, except that limits were placed on governments power to impose tariffs and restrict slavery.
6. Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and Alexander Stephens of Georgia became president and vice president.
e. Crittenden Compromise
1. With five months left in office, president Buchanan did nothing to prevent the secession of the seven states.
2. In a last ditch effort, John Crittenden (Kentucky) proposed a constitutional amendment that would guarantee the right to hold slaves in all territories south of 36°30’. Lincoln wouldn’t accept this, however, because it violated the Republican position against extension of slavery into the territories.
3. Southern whites thought they had the right to national independence from “tyranny”. They thought Lincoln may not put up a fight, as with Buchanan, but they were wrong.

Chapter 14: The Civil War

• Beginning of war
o Lincoln states that he does not want to interfere with Southern slavery
o Fort Sumter: held by federal troops but claimed by secessionist states
 War began when Southern gunmen opened fire on federal troops there
 Lincoln used executive power to call for volunteers to help in Sumter battle
o Secession of upper south
 Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas seceded
o Lincoln tried to keep border states within Union by not pushing for early emancipation of slaves
o Wartime Advantages
 Military
• South only had to fight a defensive war, but North had more people (war of attrition) and better Navy
 Economic
• North had economy that controlled banking, factories, railroads, and farmlands
 Political:
• South’s strong policy of favoring states’ rights served as liability for Confederacy, since strong central leadership would be needed to win
o Confederacy
 Similar to U.S. constitution, but only six-term president and denied right to levy a protective tariff
 Faced chronic shortage of money throughout war
• First Years of the War
o Battle of Bull Run (1)
 First major battle of war
 Stonewall Jackson exposes inefficiency of Union troops
o Union Strategy
 Anaconda Plan: U.S. navy blocks southern ports
 Divide confederacy in half
 Sack Richmond
o Antietam
 Bloodiest single day in Civil War
 Decisive: prevented Confederacy from receiving foreign aid
o Monitor vs. Merrimac
 Stalemate eventually
 Monitor prevented Merrimac from becoming a formidable weapon
 Ended era of wooden ships
• Foreign Affairs/Diplomacy
o Trent Affair
 Britain almost sided with Confederacy when two diplomats went to Britain on ship called Trent
 Union stopped ship and took out diplomats
 Eventually returned, but Britain did not acknowledge
o Confederate Raiders
 Confederate commerce raiders seriously hindered Union merchant ships
o Cotton Diplomacy failure
 King Cotton could not dictate European trading policy, because Europe found other sources of getting cotton
• End of slavery
o Confiscation acts
 Empowered Lincoln to use freed slaves in Union army
o Emancipation Proclamation
 “military necessity”: all slaves held in Confederate states outside Union control were to be set free
 Not immediate, since no slaves were under Union control
 Changed Union ideology (war against slavery)
o Thirteenth Amendment
 Explicitly stated that slavery and involuntary servitude shall not exist within United States
• Union wins
o Turning Points
 Vicksburg: Union artillery bombarded Confederates until surrender was achieved
o Grant in command
 First general who could “fight and win”
 Sherman’s march: campaign for deliberate destruction that went across Georgia and into South Carolina  destroyed EVERYTHING
 Election of 1864: Lincoln reelected easily
o End of war
 Appomattox surrender: Lee surrenders unconditionally to Grant
 Lincoln assassination
• Cuts of Northern leadership at the bud and prevents possibility of speedy reconstruction
• Effects on civil life
o Political
 Civil liberties
• Suspension of habeas corpus: anyone could be charged of crime
• Difficult to judge whether Lincoln’s violations were flagrant
 Draft
• Due to lack of volunteers, conscription was implemented
• Rich often paid poor to take spots  socioeconomic riots
 Political Dominance of north
• Southern ideologies and thoughts of secession were in essence squashed
o Economic
 Financing
• North borrowed money, implemented first ever income tax, Greenbacks
 Modernization of north
• Republicans passed a serious of acts:
o Morrill Tariff: raised tariff rates
o Homestead: promotes settlement of Plains
o Pacific Railway: transcontinental railroad authorized
o Social
 Women and Work
• More women worked in factories and other jobs due to men fighting in war
• Provided impetus for reform of women’s’ rights
 End of slavery
• African Americans who were freed were also faced with Constitutional protection
• Transformed America into a complex modern industrial society of capital, technology, and large corporations

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