October Unit Test (1760-1800's)

List of terms first, then essay answers.
This covers the revolution and early governments, 1760 to 1800's

Part 1
• Proclamation of 1763
• Drew a line down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists could only settle east of this line.
• Idea was to limit skirmishes with backwoods Indians, but also limited land available for farming.
• One of the first hard-and-fast rules the colonists had to deal with.
• Thomas Paine
• Wrote Common Sense, pro-revolution pamphlet which argued it was against good sense for such a large colony to be governed by a tiny island so far away
• Crisis Papers
• Series of 13 pamphlets published by Paine published at key points throughout revolution, including Common Sense
• Stamp Act Congress
• 1765 reps. from 9 colonies met in New York to protest Stamp Act, resolved that only elected officials could levy taxes on the people
• Olive Branch Petition
• July 1775 sent by colonists to King George III, pledging loyalty to him and asking him to step up and preserve the peace and protect colonial rights. The King dismissed the plea.
• Quartering Act
• 1765 required colonists to provide food/housing for British soldiers
• Townshend Acts
• 1767 duties on imported tea, glass, and paper
• Revenue used to pay crown officials, so they were independent of colonial assemblies which had before voted on their salaries
• Boston Tea Party
• Parliament in 1773 passed the Tea Act, making British East India Co. tea cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea, to help the BEIC
• Many refused to buy cheaper tea b/c they didn’t want to recognize parliament’s right to levy taxes
• Unbought tea sitting in Boston Harbor
• December 1773 colonists dressed as Indians snuck on board, through 342 chests of tea into harbor
• Some applauded defense of liberty, others thought destruction of private property was going too far
• Coercive Acts
• 1774, intended to punish Boston and Massachusetts after Tea Party, four acts:
• Port Act- closed Boston harbor, prohibited trade until tea paid for
• Massachusetts Government Act- reduced power of Mass. legislature, increased power of royal governor
• Administration of Justice Act – royal officials accused of crimes could go to trial in England instead of colonies
• Expanded Quartering Ac, let British troops be quartered in private homes, applied to all colonies
• Loyalists/Tories
• Loyal to King, made up about 20-30% of colonists
• Found mostly in NY, NJ, and GA
• Majority were wealthy/conservative
• Sons of Liberty
• Secret organization to intimidate tax agents in protest of the Stamp Act
• First Continental Congress
• Met in Philadelphia September 1774
• Most delegates didn’t want independence, just to restore relationship with the Crown
• Delegates included:
• Radicals- Patrick Henry (VA) and Samuel and John Adams (MA)
• Moderates- G. Washington (VA) and John Dickinson (PA)
• Conservatives- John Jay (NY) and Joseph Galloway (PA)
• There were no loyalists
• Suffolk Resolves- called for repeal of Intolerable Acts, urged boycott of British goods
• Declaration of Rights + Grievances- petitioned king to redress grievances, respect the rights of colonists
• Second Continental Congress
• Met May 1775 in Philadelphia
• New England delegates thought colonies should declare independence
• Middle colonies wanted to negotiate with England
• Washington was appointed Commander-in-Chief, organized a military force
• Benedict Arnold was chosen to lead force to raid Quebec
• Sent Olive Branch Petition in July 1775
• Boston Massacre
• March 1770 crowd of colonists was harassing British guards
• Guards fired into crowd, killing 5 (including Crispus Attucks)
• Paxton Boys
• Killed Conestoga Indians in Lancaster, PA as revenge for Pontiac’s rebellion
• Some Indians took refuge in Philadelphia, 1500 Paxton Boys marched on the city, but Ben Franklin convinced them to leave by allowing them to talk to the governor and general assembly
• Tea Act
• See Boston Tea Party
• Stamp Act
• 1765 required revenue stamps to be attached to all printed paper, such as legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, etc.
• First direct tax (collected on user of good, not merchants) on the colonists
• Non-importation Agreements (Boycott)
• In response to Stamp and Townshend Acts, colonists would not buy goods imported from England, bought smuggled foreign goods instead
• Virtual Representation
• Idea that members of Parliament represented the interests of all citizens of England, including the colonists, even though the colonists did not specifically vote for members
• Gaspee Affair
• 1772 British customs ship Gaspee ran aground in Rhode Island, group of colonists snuck on board disguised as Indians, sent the crew onshore, then set the ship on fire
• Sugar Act 1764
• Cut duty on molasses in half, trying to reduce temptation for smugglers, also put duties on other goods to spread costs around
• Lexington and Concord
• April 18 1775 British Gen. Thomas Gage in Boston sent force to seize military supplies in Concord
• Lexington Minutemen (militia) assembled on the village green, came under British fire, 8 minutemen killed
• British got to Concord, destroyed some supplies
• On march back to Boston, militiamen attacked the British from all sides, killing 250
• First battle of the Revolutionary War
• Battle of Bunker Hill
• June 17, 1775 full-on battle in outskirts of Boston
• Massachusetts militia fortified Breed’s Hill (battle wrongly named for neighboring Bunker Hill)
• Were attacked by British, Brits took hill but suffered more than a thousand casualties
• Declaration of Independence
• June 7 1776 Richard Henry Lee (VA) introduced resolution to 2nd Continental Congress which declared colonies independent
• Jefferson and others then drafted a statement supporting that resolution, listing grievances and basic principals behind revolution
• July 2nd congress adopted Lee’s resolution
• July 4th adopted Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence
Part 2
• George Grenville
• English prime minister from 1763-1765 under George III; Pitt’s successor; first lord of the Treasury
• Enacted Sugar Act (aka Revenue Act 1964), Quartering act, Stamp Act 1765 because he reasoned colonies needed to share in cost of their defense (French & Indian War)
• Under his term, end of salutary neglect
• Whig ideology
• Whigs vs. Tories
• “Real Whigs” were radicals whose ideas influenced the colonies; John Locke and his Two Treatises on Government
• Early colonial activists viewed themselves as Whigs until the label Patriot became more popular
• James Otis
• Early Patriot leader in Boston attributed with the phrase “taxation w/o representation is tyranny”
• Wrote “The Rights of the British Colonists Asserted and Proved” to which Grenville responded with “virtual representation”
• William Pit (Earl of Catham)
• Former English prime minister during F&I war (“I know that I can save England and no one else can”)
• Actually approved resistance of colonies somewhat; demanded that Stamp Act be repealed but wanted Britain to assert authority over colonies
• John Dickinson
• Most known for his letters as a “Pennsylvania farmer” that protested the Townshend Acts
• Parliament could regulate commerce, collect duties, but they couldn’t levy taxes for revenue
• Samuel Adams
• Key Patriot leader throughout all of Revolution; organized protests against the Stamp Act, Boston Tea Party, Sons of Liberty; one of the more radical delegates demanding greater concessions from GB
• Organized committees of correspondence
• Supported independence from Britain when most thought it a radical idea
• Rep at Stamp Act Congress, Continental Congress, signed Declaration
• Customs racketeering
• Crispus Attucks
• African American killed in Boston Massacre; one of five to be killed
• Depicted as a white male in engravings of event by Revere
• Regulators
• Committee of correspondence
• Principal device for relaying news of British misdeeds; organized by Sam Adams in 1722
• Continental Association
• Battle of Saratoga
• Horatio Gates vs John Burgoyne
• American forces led by Gates surrounded Burgoynes troops at Saratoga, forcing British to surrender; huge victory and morale booster for Americans
• Helped French make up their mind to aid the Americans, openly allied with US
• The American Crisis
• Written by Thomas Paine after disheartening campaigns in NY, NJ
• “These are the times that try men’s souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot…”
• Read aloud to troops to boost morale
• Loyalists
• Aka Tories; maintained allegiance to the king
• 60K joined British to fight against Patriots; mainly comprised of the wealthier, more conservative people ex gov’t officials, Anglican clergymen
• General William Howe
• Leader of British army for NY campaigns
• Inflicted heavy losses in early battles but decided to wait out the winter instead of routing the American army, which he could have done if he had acted
• Resigned command after Saratoga, replaced by Henry Clinton
• Militia
• Republican ideology
• Horatio Gates
• Leader of troops at Saratoga; from New England
• Former British soldier in F&I war, thought he would make a better commander-in-chief than Washington
• Utterly defeated by Cornwallis at Battle of Camden (SC)
• Lord Charles Cornwallis
• In charge of troops in the south while Clinton was in the north
• Routed Gates’s army at Camden, took Charleston, but was opposed by guerilla bands made up of farmers
• Cornwallis vs Nathaniel Greene and Daniel Morgan
• Went up to VA to cut off reinforcements that came from there
• Settled in Yorktown as a defensive position, surrounded by Washington and French, surrendered on October 17, 1781, effectively ending all hopes of British victory
• Sovereignty
• Benedict Arnold
• Most notably known for his betrayal and going over to the British side
• Fought as an American officer at Saratoga and had captured Ft Ticonderoga
• Had obtained command of fort at West Point, NY and plotted to surrender it to British, with John André as the middle man (captured and hanged as spy)
• Frustrated by lack of promotions, assaults on his honor, unhappy with American alliance w/ France
• John Paul Jones
• “I have not yet begun to fight”
• Sept 23, 1779 captured and sank a British frigate despite several demands for surrender
• Vergennes
• Comte de Vergennes; French foreign minister; sent special agent to Philly to hint at French aid, encourage colonists
• John Adams
• Cousin of Samuel Adams
• Patriot leader from NE; delegate at Continental Congress; one of the more radical delegates demanding greater concessions from GB
• Helped persuade fellow colonists to sign Declaration
• Benjamin Franklin
• Did lots of stuff
• Invented lightning rod, Franklin stove, bifocals, Postal service
• Delegate at Continental Congress, sent over to France to negotiate terms of alliance during war
• John Jay
• From NY; sent to Britain to negotiate an end to British trade abuses during (impressments, ship plundering); Jay’s Treaty 1794
• First chief justice of Supreme Court (appointed by GW)
• During Continental Congress, conservative favoring mild protest
• Constitutional Convention
• Purpose was to revise Articles of Confederation
• 12 states (RI didn’t come) met in Philly and discussed representation (proportional to favor large states or equal to favor small?), slavery (abolish it or keep it? South wouldn’t agree to constitution if slavery banned), trade (Commercial Compromise-Congress allowed to regulate commerce, could put tariffs on imports but no taxes on exports), powers/election of president (how long is term, who should elect? Electoral college)
• Draft approved after 17 weeks of debate
• Federalists (strong central gov’t) vs Anti-Federalists (protect state rights); debate over Bill of Rights, was it necessary, etc
• Ratified by all states, including RI
• Noah Webster
• Author of “blue-backed speller” which taught generations how to read, write, spell (1783)
• Robert Morris
• Known as Financier of the Revolution bc of his monetary wartime contributions
• During Revolution, Morris closest thing to head of Confederacy
• Believed “a public debt supported by public revenue will provide the strongest cement to keep our confederacy together”
• He provided the money to pay troops
• Elected Superintendent of Finance 1781-1784; proposed national bank in 1781 (Bank of North America)
Part 3

Part 4

Marbury v. Madison
 This case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace by President John Adams, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams' Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's commission. Marbury petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional.
 This case established the doctrine of judicial review.

Louisiana Purchase
 Jefferson sent ministers to France to offer up to $10 million for both New Orleans and a strip of land extending from that port eastward to Florida. Napoleon’s ministers offered to sell not only New Orleans, but also the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million. The American ministers accepted even though it was beyond their instructions.
 Many people argued that the purchase was unconstitutional. Jefferson submitted the purchase agreement to the Senate, who quickly ratified the purchase.

Revolution of 1800
 The change from Federalist control to Democratic-Republican control
 Accomplished without violence

Lewis and Clark Expedition
 Jefferson persuaded Congress to fund an exploration of the land west of the Mississippi. It was to be led by Cpt. Meriwether Lewis and Lt. William Clark from 1804 to 1806.
 It increased geographic and scientific knowledge, strengthened US claims to the Oregon Territory, improved relations with Native American tribes, and developed maps and land routes for fur trappers and future settlers.

Essex Junto
 The Essex Junto was a group of lawyers and merchants from Essex County, Massachusetts. These Federalists supported Alexander Hamilton and the Massachusetts radicals. When Hamilton was offered a place in the plot to secede New England from the Union, he denied the offer. Consequently, the Essex Junto turned to support from Aaron Burr, who agreed to help the radical group because of his dissatisfaction in the office of Vice President. This plot, to have Burr elected governor of New York and launch the secession, was eventually foiled by Hamilton himself. After Hamilton's death they became even more extreme.

Burr Conspiracy
 The Burr conspiracy was a suspected treasonous cabal of planters, politicians and army officers led by former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr. According to the accusations against him, Burr’s goal was to create an independent nation in the center of North America and/or the Southwest and parts of Mexico. Burr’s explanation: To take possession of, and farm, 40,000 acres (160 km²) in the Texas Territory leased to him by the Spanish. When the expected war with Spain broke out, he would fight with his armed “farmers,” to seize some lands he could conquer in the war–all illegal by rules of warfare. Jefferson and others had Burr arrested and indicted for treason with no firm evidence put forward.

John Randolph of Roanoke
 A leader in Congress from Virginia and spokesman for the “Old Republican” or “Quids” faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that wanted to restrict the federal government's roles.

Tertium Quid

Judicial Review
 The power of the courts to annul the acts of the executive and/or the legislative power where it finds them incompatible with a higher norm. Judicial review is an example of the functioning of separation of powers.

Berlin/Milan Decrees (Imperial Decrees)
 The Berlin Decree was issued by Napoleon in November 1806. The decree forbade the import of British goods into European countries allied with or dependent upon France. It eventually led to economic ruin for France, while little happened to the economy of Britain, who had control of the Atlantic Ocean trade. Other European nations removed themselves from the continental system, which, in part, led to the downfall of Napoleon Bonaparte.
 The Milan Decree was issued in December 1807 by Napoleon to enforce the Berlin Decree of 1806, which had initiated the Continental System that was the basis for his plan to defeat the British by waging economic warfare. The Decree stated that no European country was to trade with the United Kingdom.

Embargo
 The prohibition of commerce (division of trade) and trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation, given that the effects of the embargo are often able to make its economy suffer from the initiative

Non-Intercourse Act
 In the last days of Jefferson's presidency, the Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the Non-Intercourse Act. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of Britain and France. It was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. It seriously damaged the economy of the United States.

Macon’s Bill No. 2
 Intended to motivate Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. The bill restored trade with Britain and France. It provided, however, that if either Britain or France formally agreed to respect US neutral rights at sea, the US would prohibit trade with that nation’s foe.

War Hawks
 People eager for war with Britain.
 Led by Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina.
 They argued that the war with Britain would be the only way to defend American honor, gain Canada, and destroy Native American resistance on the frontier.

Oliver H. Perry
 An officer in the US Navy. He served in the War of 1812 and led American forces in a decisive naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.

William Henry Harrison
 Ninth president (I’m not sure why he’s on the list)

Fort McHenry
 A star shaped fort that successfully defended Baltimore Harbor in the War of 1812 from an attack by the British navy in the Chesapeake Bay. It was during this bombardment of the fort that Francis Scott Key was inspired to write “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

Battle of New Orleans
 The final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, with General Andrew Jackson in command, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed in December of 1814, but news of the peace did not reach New Orleans until February. Although the engagement was small compared to other contemporary battles, it was important for the meaning applied to it by Americans in general and Andrew Jackson in particular.

Monroe Doctrine
 A U.S. doctrine, which stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent states of the Americas. The US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and their colonies. However, if later on these types of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such action as hostile.

Embargo Act of 1807
 A series of laws passed by Congress between the years 1806-1808, during Jefferson’s second term. It was partly brought upon by the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair involving Britain attacking U.S. ships, and partly by Britain prohibiting its trading partners from trading with France. Jefferson's goal was to use economic warfare instead of military warfare to secure the rights of Americans. These acts sought to punish Britain for its violations of American rights on the high seas.

Tecumseh
 A famous Native American leader of the Shawnee.
 Tecumseh joined British Major-General Sir Isaac Brock and the British in the War of 1812.
 He was killed in the Battle of the Thames, which was a victory for the US.

Jay Treaty
 Treaty between the US and Great Britain that averted war, solved many issues left over from the American Revolution, and opened ten years of largely peaceful trade in the midst of the French Revolutionary War. It was highly contested by Jeffersonians, but passed Congress.
 Requirements: British withdrawal from the posts that they occupied in the Northwest Territory of the United States, which they had promised to abandon in 1783. The Americans were also granted some rights to trade with British possessions in India and the Caribbean in exchange for American limits on the export of cotton.

Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion (1800)
 A large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800 led by Gabriel. Governor James Monroe and the state militia suppressed the rebellion. Gabriel and 26 other enslaved people who participated were hanged. Gabriel's Rebellion was important as a sign of the desire slaves had for freedom. In reaction, the Virginia and other legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks.

Annapolis Convention (1786)
 A meeting at Annapolis, Maryland of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that called for a constitutional convention.
 The defects that they were to remedy were those barriers that limited trade or commerce between the largely independent states under the Articles of Confederation.

Orders in Council (Europe 1806 and 1807)

Hartford Convention
 An event in 1814-1815 in the US during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.

American Colonization of Society (1817)

Part 5
• Republicanism/Democracy—first, there were the Federalists and the Republicans. The Federalist Party just about died out, leaving only the Republicans. Republicans split into National-Republicans, which became Republicans, and Democrat-Republicans, which became Democrats. The Republicans were more like Federalists, led by John Quincy Adams. The Democrats, led by Andrew Jackson, were frontiersmen and favored smaller central government. (The parties switched later on to be, as we know them now.)
• Interchangeable parts—standardized parts for manufactured goods—prior to their invention, every blacksmith did whatever the hell he felt like, and getting repairs was really hard. Then, around 1778, interchangeable parts came around, making production and repair of items like firearms much easier and cheaper.
• Henry Clay—supported the Second National Bank in 1816, but helped kill Hamilton’s first Bank in 1811. As the Speaker of the House, he gave the election of 1824 to John Quincy Adams in the “corrupt bargain.” He came up with the “American System” that was an even more ambitious economic plan that Hamilton’s: it called for a protective tariff, strong rechartered National Bank, and federally-funded internal improvements (canals, roads, railroads).
• Washington’s farewell address—the 1796 letter by George Washington that he was stepping down from the presidency by not running for a third term (which he could have easily won). In the letter, he set an enormous precedent by willingly ending his term. He strongly encouraged steering away from sectionalism, factionalism, and political parties, which he said would tear the country apart. We didn’t listen, and in 1796, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson duked it out as a Republican and a Federalist.
• Great/Connecticut Compromise—compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention that resolved (to some extent) the clash over representation. Big states (mostly Federalists) wanted representation by population, while small states (mostly anti-Federalists/republicans) wanted equal representation for each state. They decided to make the House of Representatives, by population, and the Senate, equally by state.
• Barbary Pirates—before and during the War of 1812, pirates from the Barbary Coast (and other places) had plundered US ships. After the war, Captain Stephen Decatur went to the Barbary Coast and forced treaties with all of the pirate groups there, showing US strength and totally stopping piracy in that region.
• Undeclared naval War (1812)—after Jay’s Treaty was signed, France started plundering US ships. We retaliated not by declaring war, but rather by increasing military budget and ordering the navy to attack French ships, too.
• Treaty of Alliance 1778—also called the Franco-American Alliance, this was an agreement between France and the US. The countries agreed to aid each other into the indefinite future in the event of British attack, not make amends with England until independence had been achieved, and not make any treaties with any other countries unless American and French diplomats were present to negotiate. It helped the US and France until 1783. It was totally ended in 1799 after the XYZ affair.
• Treaty of Paris of 1783—the treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War. It declared that the United States was an independent nation, with the Mississippi River as its western frontier. It gave the US the right to fish off of Canadian coasts and required that the US pay back the debts and property that it had confiscated from the loyalists during the war. (Loyalists were colonist who remained loyal to England.)
• Republican Motherhood—concept of the late 1700s: mothers should raise their children in accordance with Republican ideals to make them perfect citizens. It was a good example of gender roles/women’s roles.
• Corrupt Bargain—in the presidential election of 1824, the electoral vote was split between John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, handed the election to John Quincy Adams, tarnishing both men’s reputation in the “corrupt bargain.” (The bargain may or may not have actually been arranged by the two men.) Many people were angered by the corrupt bargain, and resolved to elect Jackson next time, which they did.
• Loose/strict constructionism—loose and strict interpretation of the Constitution. Some said that the Constitution should be interpreted more literally, and that inferences should not be made—if the Constitution doesn’t explicitly give you the right to do something, you can’t do it. Others said that the Constitution and the intentions of the Constitution should be subject to interpretation. Republicans were more strict constructionists, and Federalists were looser. Strict constructionists were against the National Bank; loose ones were for it. Strict constructionists were more against the Louisiana Purchase; loose ones were more for it. In the South, the Tariff of 1816 spurred strict constructionism because plantation owners feared that if the Constitution could implicitly give the government power to establish tariffs, then it could probably implicitly give it power to abolish slavery.
• Gibbons v. Ogden—1824 case under chief justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall. Ogden had federally-given permission to use his steamboat between New York and New Jersey; Gibbons had state-given permission to do the same. The court ruled that the federal permission trumped the state permission, furthering nationalism and the Federalist cause and establishing national supremacy in regulating interstate commerce. This led to economic expansion.
• Treaty of Ghent—Treaty that ended the War of 1812. It declared the war over and demanded that POWs be returned and boundaries be restored to how they were before the war. It left fishery rights and disputed boundaries to be decided at a later a time.
• Critical period—the period from 1783, when the Treaty of Paris was signed, and 1789, when the Constitution was put into effect, Congress was elected, and George Washington was unanimously elected President. It was an uneasy period, when the US could possibly collapse into anarchy or strengthen and unify.
• Cotton Gin/Eli Whitney—Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1792 and patented it in 1794. It was a really, really simple device that allowed slaves to separate cotton seeds from cotton 50 times faster than by hand. It made slavery and agriculture much more profitable until the abolition of slavery.
• Articles of Confederation—written 1777, ratified 1781, replaced by Constitution 1789. It was the constitution of the early US. Pros: it was a good start; it provided many mistakes that were opportunities for lessons learned for the Constitutional Convention of 1787; it upheld the democratic values of the Revolution; it put in place the Land Ordinance of 1785, which settled the Northwest Territory (Ohio), divided land into townships and square-mile parcels, and made money for the nation; it allowed the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which set up a government for the Northwest, outlawed slavery there, and allowed a way for regions to become territories (by having 5,000 residents) and for territories to become states (by having 60,000 residents). Cons to the Articles: no common national currency (hurt interstate commerce); no national armed forces (Shay’s Rebellion (1786-1787) showed our need for a standing army…the putdown of the Whiskey Rebellion (1791-1794) showed our accomplishment of that); it made the central government too weak by giving too much power to states (central government could not levy taxes); it required unanimous votes for some things, and usually not all of the delegates could make it to meetings; in the Land Ordinance of 1785, it allowed land speculators to take advantage of normal folk by selling them land for more than it was worth.
• 3/5 Compromise—another compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The South wanted slaves to count for their population and therefore their representation in Congress. The North wanted slaves to count for taxation. So, the delegates agreed to count 3/5ths of slaves for population and for taxation. (They also agreed not to forbid slave trade until 1808, but to tax that slave trade in the meantime, and for the most part glossed over slavery. The word “slavery” did not appear in the Constitution until the 13th Amendment, which abolished it.)
• Samuel Slater—one of the first and most famous perpetrators of industrial espionage. He traveled to England and memorized the plans for the sewing machine and textile mills. He came back to the US in 1789 and recreated those inventions here, helping the US economy.
• Benjamin Banneker—the first African American scientist. He is most famous for carving the first clock in America. He was also an astronomer and author of “Benjamin Banneker’s Almanac,” a best seller all over the US. He was used as an example that blacks were not intellectually inferior to whites.
• Haitian Slave Revolt—from 1791 to 1804, Saint-L’Ouveture led a slave revolt against France. The Mississippi region had been the breadbasket for Haiti. When France lost this island, it had no real use anymore for Louisiana, so it sold it to the US in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase.
• Bank of the United States—part of Hamilton’s Plan for America. The Articles of Confederation had failed in that states had no common currency. So, Federalists set up the Bank, with the federal government giving 1/5 of the charter and appointing 5/25 of the directors. Private investors—mostly New England Federalists—supplied the other 4/5ths of the charter. Strict constructionists, who said that the Constitution said nothing about power to make a bank, fought the bank. The South bought up shared of the Bank, allowing southern states to open state branches of the national Bank that allowed state governments to get loans from state banks that were actually part of the national bank. Its charter ran out in 1811, but it was reinstated in 1816 under the newly-converted-to-Federalism President Madison.
• Yeoman farmers—non-slaveholding small landowning family farmers during the 1700s and 1800s. They were mostly subsistence farmers.
• Virginia Resolution—drafted by Jefferson and Madison. Denounced the Federalists for expanding power beyond constitutional limits and argued that states should have authority to decide the constitutionality of federal acts. The Kentucky Resolution proposed a similar denunciation. This was written while Jefferson was still a cabinet member, before he became president and totally violated the principles laid out in the VA resolution by buying the Louisiana Purchase.
• Impressments—British press gangs would stop US ships in British ports, US ports, and sometimes at sea and force them to join the British navy. They said, “Once an Englishman, always an Englishman,” and took American sailors who looked as though they might be British. In 1807, the British Leopard seized four men from the American Chesapeake, angering Federalists. In the 1812 Treaty of Ghent, Secretary of State James Monroe demanded that England give up the practice of impressments.
• Bill of Rights—controversial—anti-federalists (later republicans) wanted a Bill of Rights to ensure basic rights. Federalist thought it was not needed in the Constitution. They are the first 10 amendments of the Constitution.

Essay Answers

B. To what extent were the Articles of Confederation effective at solving the early nation's problems?
Articles of Confederation: Overall not very effective because the weak central government caused financial, foreign, and domestic problems.
Problems:
-Financial: war debts were unpaid, states & congress issued worthless paper money, congress had no taxing power (could only request that the states donate money). As a result the United States was very weak and chaotic. Reduced foreign trade and limited credit because war debts were unpaid contributed to widespread economic depression. The inability to levy national taxes and the printing of worthless paper money by many states were also problems.
-Foreign: European nations had respect for a new nation that couldn’t pay its debts or take united action in a crisis. Congress could not create or control an army, leaving the US vulnerable. Britain and Spain threatened to take advantage of the US and expand their western claims. States failed to adhere to the treaty of paris which required loyalists’ property restored and debts to foreigners be repaid. America could not stop Britain from placing restrictions on trade and maintaining military outposts on the western frontier
-Domestic: The articles required 2/3 of the states to vote in order to change anything, and a unanimous vote to amend the articles. This meant that congress could not fix any of these problems. The states competed with eachother and didn’t trust eachother. Interstate tariffs and restrictions applied. Also were boundary disputes. Federal government was weak and could do nothing to help this. shay’s rebellion in 1786 (led by Daniel shays, farmer in massuchuessets); uprising against high state taxes, imprisonment for debt, lack of paper money. They stopped the collection of taxes and forced the closing of debtor courts. The government could do nothing to stop this. Finally shut down while trying to take weapons from springfield armory in 1787.

E. To what extent was the election of 1800 aptly named the “Revolution of 1800?” Respond with reference to TWO of the following areas: Economics; Foreign policy; Judiciary; Politics.

POLITICALLY
Some observers have regarded Jefferson's election in 1800 as revolutionary. The political changes were profound. The Federalists lost control of both the presidency and the Congress. (Because Adams had lost favor with the people because of the Alien and Sedition Acts and Hamilton did not like Adams either so he had sabotaged his campaign  the federalists were losing popularity and favor)
By 1800, the American people were ready for a change. Under Washington and Adams, the Federalists had established a strong government. They sometimes failed, however, to honor the principle that the American government must be responsive to the will of the people. They had followed policies that alienated large groups. For example, in 1798 they enacted a tax on houses, land and slaves, affecting every property owner in the country. Jefferson had steadily gathered behind him a great mass of small farmers, shopkeepers and other workers; they asserted themselves in the election of 1800. Jefferson enjoyed extraordinary favor because of his appeal to American idealism. In his inaugural address, the first such speech in the new capital of Washington, D.C., he promised "a wise and frugal government" to preserve order among the inhabitants, but would "leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry, and improvement." Jefferson's mere presence in The White House encouraged democratic behavior. White House guests were encouraged to shake hands with the president, rather than bowing as had been the Federalist practice. Guests at state dinners were seated at round tables, which emphasized a sense of equality. He taught his subordinates to regard themselves merely as trustees of the people. He encouraged agriculture and westward expansion. Believing America to be a haven for the oppressed, he urged a liberal naturalization law.
Politically, it also altered the presidential/ vice-presidential election procedure. Under the Constitution at that time, each elector was to vote for two candidates without specifying who was to be president or vice president. By mistake Jefferson received the same number of votes as his running mate Aaron Burr, deadlocking the electoral college. The election went to the House of Representatives, where each state had one vote. Burr refused to step aside, and the election was deadlocked for almost a week. By the 36th ballot Jefferson was elected. In 1804 the Twelfth Amendment corrected this problem by requiring electors to vote separately for president and vice president.
FOREIGN POLICY
The election of 1800 completely shifted the power of the government to the Republicans  next two presidents were Jefferson and Madison, both Republicans
The new leaders, Republicans, had a whole different view of American-European relations. Jefferson and the Republicans loved the French. Chesapeake-Leopard affair: British warship Leopard fired on U.S. warship Chesapeake, killing 3 Americans. Anti-British feelings ran high. Jefferson passes the Embargo Act of 1807 which caused a failure in American economy. The Embargo Act is repealed during Jefferson’s last years as President, but even afterwards, the U.S. ships could not trade legally with Britain or France.
Furthermore, the election of 1800 was precedent to 1808 because the Federalists had lost all power, especially after the death of Hamilton (killed by Burr). Madison easily won.  War of 1812 against Britain caused by British’s violations of the U.S. neutral rights (French also violated… but to a lesser extent). British violated the rights more blatantly because of its navy’s practice of impressing American seamen. Because of the election of 1800’s transferring of power to the Republicans, the congressional election in 1810 brought a group of new, young Republicans to Congress  War Hawks who were very eager for war with Britain. American declares war in June.

F. Evaluate the relative importance of domestic and foreign affairs in shaping American politics in the 1790s.

o During George Washington's Presidency, Alexander Hamilton & Thomas Jefferson, his two closest advisors, faced off on opposing views of what the role of government should be. Alexander Hamilton, the Federalist from N.Y. called for shaping policies that would help to improve the U.S. economy & lifestyle. In his 3 reports to congress, Hamilton called for protective tariffs, a bank of the U.S., encouragement of industry, and improved infrastructure to better facilitate transport: all domestic issues.
But, Jefferson, the Republican from Virginia, advocated a strict constructional view of the constitution, adhering only to what the constitution says exactly, as opposed to Hamilton's loose construction view using the elastic clause or the necessary & proper clause to its fullest which would allow the government to do anything. Jefferson advocated an agrarian society with a small government & was completely introverted (focus only on the U.
Domestic and Foreign affairs therefore produced tensions that established the tradition of political parties in the U. The XYZ Affair, in which French minister Talleyrand attempted to bribe 3 American diplomats produced the opposite affect by putting the Republicans on the defensive from Federalist attacks during the resulting Quasi-War with France. Hamilton's programs passed but not without fiery opposition from Thomas Jefferson who envisioned an agricultural Republic of independent yeoman farmers. "Federalists" supported Hamilton, "Republicans" supported Jefferson. But foreign affairs were destined to play a part in influencing American politics. Hamilton wanted to repay debts to the current holders (speculators) instead of to their original holders.
o Washington (1789-1798) and John Adams (1797-1801)
o Foreign Affairs:
o French Revolution: Jefferson argued that, because Britain was seizing American merchant ships bound or French ports, the Americans should join France in its defensive war against Britain: Jefferson sympathized with the revolutionary cause
o Proclamation of neutrality (1793): President Washington did not believe that the young nation was strong enough to engage in European war: signs proclamation of neutrally in the French-British conflict: Jefferson resigns from cabinet in disagreement with Washington
o The Jay Treaty (1794): Washington sends Chief Justice John Jay to Britain to stop Britain from searching and seizing American ships and impressing seamen into the British navy. 1794: Jay brings back treaty in which Britain agrees to evacuate its posts on the U.S. western frontier but said nothing about British seizures of American merchant chips: angered American supporters of France but maintained policy of neutrality
o The Pinckney Treaty (1795): Seeing Jay Treaty as a threat, Spain decides to consolidate its holdings in North American: agrees to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade, granted Americans the right of deposit so they could transfer cargoes in New Orleans without paying duties to the Spanish government, and Spain accepted the U.S. claim that Florida’s northern border should be at the 31st parallel
o Domestic Affairs:
o Native Americans: British were supplying Native Americans with arms and encouraging them to attack the “intruder” Americans. In 1794, U.S. army led by General Anthony Wayne defeats 7 tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers  Treaty of Greenville was signed in which Native Americans surrendered claims to the Ohio Territory and promised to open it up to settlement
o The Whiskey Rebellion (1794): Was the new federal government strong enough to deal successfully with rebellion against its own laws? In western Pennsylvania, group of farmers refuse to pay federal excise tax on whisky and defended their liberties by attacking the revenue collectors. Washington federalizes 15,000 state militiamen under command of Alexander Hamilton, which cause the Whisky Rebellion to collapse without bloodshed. Contrasted with the previous government’s helplessness to do anything about Shay’s Rebellion. Western farmers resented and condemned Washington because they thought it was unwarranted use of force against common people  Jefferson gained popularity as a champion of the western farmers.
o Public Land Act in 1796: established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices.
o 1791: Vermont becomes first new state, followed by Kentucky in 1792 and Tennessee in 1796
o Political parties began to solidify around Hamilton and Jefferson. Federalists under Hamilton and Republicans under Jefferson  French Revolution further solidified the formation of national parties ==? Americans divided sharply over whether or not to support France.
o John Adams Presidency:
o XYZ Affair under John Adams: Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, hoped that by going to war the United States could gain French and Spanish lands in North America
o Alien and Sedition Acts: public anger toward France strengthened the Federalists in the congressional elections of 1798 winning a majority of seats in both houses  passed laws to stifle competition
 Naturalization Acts  increased from 5 to 14 the number of years required fro immigrants to qualify for U.S. citizenship  most immigrants voted Republican
 Alien Acts  authorized president to deport aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in time of war
 Sedition Act  made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the law.
o Federalists lose popularity because people disliked the Alien and Sedition Acts and complained about new taxes imposed by the Federalists to pay the cost of preparing for a war against France

Q. Analyze the contributions of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the constitution: John Adams; Thomas Jefferson; George Washington.

WASHINGTON
His qualifications for his task could hardly have been better. For 15 years he had contended with most of the problems that faced the infant government. By direct contact he had come to know the leaders who were to play important parts during his presidency. Having traveled widely over the country, he had become well acquainted with its economic conditions and practices. Experience had schooled him in the arts of diplomacy. He had listened closely to the debates on the Constitution and had gained a full knowledge both of its provisions and of the ideas and interests of representative leaders. He had worked out a successful method for dealing with other men and with Congress and the states. Thanks to his innumerable contacts with the soldiers of the Revolutionary army, he understood the character of the American people and knew their ways. For eight years after 1775 he had been a de facto president. The success of his work in founding a new government was a by-product of the qualifications he had acquired in the hard school of public service.
The Executive Departments. The Constitution designated the president as the only official charged with the duty of enforcing all the federal laws. The president has the power to select and nominate executive officers and the power to remove them if they are unworthy. Washington forms cabinet. In forming his cabinet Washington chose two liberals—Jefferson and Randolph—and two conservatives—Hamilton and Knox. The liberals looked to the South and West, the conservatives to the Northeast. On subjects in dispute, Washington could secure advice from each side and so make informed decisions.
The Federalist Program. The Federalist program consisted of seven laws. Together they provided for the payment, in specie, of debts incurred during the Revolution; created a sound, uniform currency based on coin; and aimed to foster home industries in order to lessen the country's dependence on European goods.
The Tariff Act (1789), the Tonnage Act (1789), and the Excise Act (1791) levied taxes, payable in coin, that gave the government ample revenues.
The Judiciary System. Under Washington's guidance a federal court system was established by the Judiciary Act of Sept. 24, 1789. The Constitution provided for its basic features. Because the president is the chief enforcer of federal laws, it is his duty to prosecute cases before the federal courts. The Judiciary Act of 1789 was so well designed that its most essential features have survived. It provided for 13 judicial districts, each with a district court of federal judges. The districts were grouped into three circuits in which circuit courts were to hear appeals from district courts. The act also created a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and five associate justices to serve as the final arbiter in judicial matters, excepting cases of impeachment. Washington's selection of John Jay as the first chief justice was probably the best choice possible for the work of establishing the federal judiciary on an enduring basis.
Foreign Affairs. In foreign affairs Washington aimed to keep the country at peace, lest involvement in a great European war shatter the new government before it could acquire strength.
The British and French. Washington's foreign policy took shape under the pressure of a war between Britain and revolutionary France. Fearing that involvement in the European war would blight the infant government, Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality on April 22, 1793, urging American citizens to be impartial and warning them against aiding or sending war materials to either belligerent.
The Western Frontier. In 1794 a third U.S. force, under Gen. Anthony Wayne, defeated the tribes so decisively at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, at the site of present-day Toledo, that they lost heart; the English withdrew their support. Wayne then imposed a victor's peace. By the Treaty of Greenville (1795), the tribes relinquished nearly all their lands in Ohio, clearing the way for pioneers to move in and form a new state. In 1796 the British evacuated the posts they had held within the United States. Because Jay's Treaty had called for the withdrawal, this registered another victory for Washington's diplomacy.
The Spanish Frontier. In dealing with Spain Washington sought both to gain for western settlers the right to export their products, duty free, by way of New Orleans, and to make good the U.S. claim to the territory in dispute.
Washington Steps Down. When Washington left office, the objectives of his foreign policy had been attained. By avoiding war he had enabled the new government to take root. He had prepared the way for the growth of the West, and, by maintaining the import trade, he had safeguarded the national revenues and the public credit. By the end of 1795 his creative work had been done.
ADAMS
The First Vice President. As in all of his positions, Adams, who was reelected in 1792, accepted the responsibilities of the vice presidency with energy and seriousness. He presided over the U.S. Senate and cast the deciding vote frequently, often for measures that would increase generally the powers of the national government or specifically those of the presidency
As Washington's "heir apparent," Adams discovered that even the presidency was being reduced to the level of human passions and party objectives. According to his philosophy, the position should seek the man, and knowledge as well as virtue should qualify the man, without regard to partisanship. Unlike Washington, Adams had rivals for the presidency, and he should have been more flexible. Instead, he permitted Alexander Hamilton to assume leadership of the Federalist party, while he tried to remove himself from partisan politics by associating even with his party's critics.
Hamilton was angry over this conduct and sought another candidate to represent the Federalist party. But the party was embroiled with the Jeffersonian Republicans in fierce contests over the direction of foreign affairs. This division centered on the war between England and France, with the Federalists favoring the English, and the Republicans, the French. The climax came during the ratification of Jay's Treaty with Britain in 1794 (see Jay's Treaty). Its pro-English character offended both the French government and the pro-French Republicans who carried on a scurrilous newspaper campaign against Jay and the administration. The bitterness, however, brought a reaction in favor of the moderates and many leaders, wishing to avoid excess, rallied to Adams, who had managed to stay out of the dispute.
The Presidency. Adams entered office on March 4, 1797. Fully aware of his slender victory, he sought political harmony. His inaugural address, tracing the progress of the nation, declared his faith in republicanism and called upon the people to end partisan politics. He tried to reach an accord with Jefferson, conciliate the Hamiltonians, and steer a peaceful course through the controversy with France over Jay's Treaty. But he encountered supreme difficulties.
As the first president to succeed another, Adams had no guidelines to follow on cabinet appointments, patronage, and policy enunciations. He decided to keep Washington's mediocre cabinet, partly because he wanted to reconcile the Federalists and partly because he knew how difficult is was to get good men to serve. The cabinet was Federalist—and more, Hamiltonian—in loyalty. Adams did not fully realize the inherent dangers of this situation until 1799, when the cabinet violated its trust by working against his policies.
He held to his policy of peace and preparedness even after the French Directory insulted American envoys (see XYZ Correspondence) and began detaining American vessels. In January 1798 he proposed the creation of a navy department and asked for funds to put the military on a war footing.
Adams's reprisals against French seizures of American shipping were popular for a time, and the Federalists won the 1798 congressional elections.
In February 1799 he abruptly nominated William Vans Murray as a special envoy, to the amazement of the Hamiltonians. Debate over the action was bitter, and Adams compromised by agreeing to name a commission instead of a single delegate, but he withstood the pressure of Hamilton, the British minister, and some members of his cabinet. The commission finally concluded a treaty with France on Sept. 30, 1800. Thus Adams succeeded in preventing a war with France and preserving his country's neutrality.

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